Asansol is one of the largest cities in the State of West Bengal outside Kolkata Metropolitan area. It emerged as a Municipal Corporation in the year 1994 by way of a merger which brought together the Burnpur Notified Area, some rural parts of Asansol Block and some colliery areas with erstwhile Asansol Municipality. Obviously, the erstwhile Asansol Municipal town had grown into a vast service city from the industrial as well as mining point of view. Gradually, within the city, both wealth and poverty began to co-exist side by side. Poor population of the city was localised in the clusters of crude dwellings, mostly squatter colonies, dotted all over the city area.
Indian Iron & Steel Company, the oldest ever Iron & Steel Company in India and Burn Standard Company are situated in Burnpur area of this corporation. Reckitt & Benkizer Ltd., a multinational company of repute has also an unit of production in Asansol. The McDowell, a foreign liquor company has also its production unit in western side of this city. Kalyanpur Industrial Area in North of Asansol has been developed for medium & small scale industries. Ready infrastructure is available there with help from ADDA, WBSEB and water supply from this corporation. ADDA has allotted land there to 80 Nos. of Entrepreneurs for setting up Small & Cottage Industries. Nationalized Banks have sanctioned loans under DIC sponsored schemes and other schemes to the Entrepreneurs. Maximum of them have started production. State Govt. has also given financial assistance under BSKP.
Asansol has a vast reserve of coal. Collieries like Damra, Ajay Second, Khusadanga, Girmint, Kakor Danga, C.M. Ghushik, 3 No. Ghushik, Mohishila Hattola, Narshamuda, Ghushik, K.D. Sim are situated withing the corporation area. Quality of coal derived therefrom deserve special mention.
Asansol is an important division of Eastern Railway of Indian Railways. Asansol Railway Station has the potentiality of modern Railway Station and that is why the Central Govt. has decided to make it a model Railway Station. Situated at 200 KM away from Howrah, it is also an important junction of South Eastern Railways. The Eastern Railway main line and a branch of S.E. Railway line connects the city with other parts of the country.
The National Highway 2 passes through Asansol linking the major cities from Kolkata to New Delhi and Amritsar. The road has been widened recently and the vehicles can ply four lanes.
The Asansol is mainly an industrial city surrounded by some rural area. Though there exists vast area of agriculture lands, due to rocky soil and low rainfall, the inhabitants have to harvest their crops once a year, mainly in rainy seasons. But on the banks of river or where there exist irrigation facilities, the farmers harvest their crops through out the year. They produce rice, wheat and seasonal vegetables. Pisciculture is also done by them in some perticular areas.